Way before computers were invented, we have been perfecting the art of photo manipulation ever since the photograph was invented.
The main purpose of photo manipulation is to persuade and deceive its viewers like using technical and creative retouching, or for self-expression and improved story telling such as in advertising.
In the early days manipulation was achieved by retouching the images with ink, paint, double-exposure, piecing photos or negatives together in the darkroom, scratching Polaroids and using air brushes, whence the term “airbrushing”.
In the 80’s with the rise of digital technology photographers and designers started to use Quantel Computers running programmes like Paintbox and then Silicon Graphics computers running Barco Creator. In 1988 Adobe created Photoshop which effectively took over after its initial release in 1990, and the rest is history!
Here is a fine collection of rather good special effects photos showing how powerful the art of photo manipulation is.